Species diversity and ecosystem stability

Etymology[ edit ] The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in the year lay book A Different Kind of Country [41] advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the s it came into common usage in science and environmental policy. Thomas Lovejoyin the foreword to the book Conservation Biology, [42] introduced the term to the scientific community.

Species diversity and ecosystem stability

Etymology[ edit ] The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in the year lay book A Different Kind of Country [41] advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the s it came into common usage in science and environmental policy.

Thomas Lovejoyin the foreword to the book Conservation Biology, [42] introduced the term to the scientific community. Jenkins, [43] Lovejoy and other leading conservation scientists at the time in America advocated the use of the term "biological diversity".

Species diversity and ecosystem stability

It first appeared in a publication in when sociobiologist E. Wilson used it as the title of the proceedings [44] of that forum. A similar term in the United States is "natural heritage.

Broader than biodiversity, it includes geology and landforms. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region".

1 What is biodiversity?

An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. They study processes such as mutation and gene transfer that drive evolution.

However, tetrapod terrestrial vertebrates taxonomic and ecological diversity shows a very close correlation.

Species diversity and ecosystem stability

Among other factors, the diversity of all living things biota depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soilsgeography and the presence of other species. The study of the spatial distribution of organismsspecies and ecosystemsis the science of biogeography.

Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions such as the Cape Floristic Region and lower in polar regions generally. Latitudinal gradients in species diversity Generally, there is an increase in biodiversity from the poles to the tropics.

Thus localities at lower latitudes have more species than localities at higher latitudes. This is often referred to as the latitudinal gradient in species diversity.

Several ecological mechanisms may contribute to the gradient, but the ultimate factor behind many of them is the greater mean temperature at the equator compared to that of the poles.

This hypothesis considers temperaturemoistureand net primary production NPP as the main variables of an ecosystem niche and as the axis of the ecological hypervolume.

In this way, it is possible to build fractal hypervolumes, whose fractal dimension rises up to three moving towards the equator. Hotspots[ edit ] A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species that have experienced great habitat loss.

Colombia is characterized by high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemics species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country.

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Selection bias amongst researchers may contribute to biased empirical research for modern estimates of biodiversity. Gilbert White succinctly observed of his Selborne, Hampshire "all nature is so full, that that district produces the most variety which is the most examined.

Evolution Apparent marine fossil diversity during the Phanerozoic [76] Biodiversity is the result of 3. The origin of life has not been definitely established by science, however some evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established only a few hundred million years after the formation of the Earth.

Until approximately million years ago, all life consisted of microorganisms — archaeabacteriaand single-celled protozoans and protists.

The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic the last million yearsstarts with rapid growth during the Cambrian explosion —a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared.At least 40 per cent of the world’s economy and 80 per cent of the needs of the poor are derived from biological resources.

In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change. At least 40 per cent of the world’s economy and 80 per cent of the needs of the poor are derived from biological resources.

Biodiversity is not evenly distributed, rather it varies greatly across the globe as well as within regions. Among other factors, the diversity of all living things depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soils, geography and the presence of other timberdesignmag.com study of the spatial distribution of organisms, species and ecosystems, is . Extreme climate and weather events shape the structure of biological systems and affect the biogeochemical functions and services they provide for . Aquatic invasive species pose an ongoing threat to the environment, economy, recreation, and human health and safely. These species are a direct driver of biodiversity loss, yet also hinder economic development, serve as vectors of disease, decrease the aesthetic value of nature, and prevent recreational activities.

In addition, the richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries, economic development, and adaptive responses to such new challenges as climate change. Aquatic invasive species pose an ongoing threat to the environment, economy, recreation, and human health and safely.

These species are a direct driver of biodiversity loss, yet also hinder economic development, serve as vectors of disease, decrease the aesthetic value of nature, and prevent recreational activities. Aquatic invasive species pose an ongoing threat to the environment, economy, recreation, and human health and safely.

These species are a direct driver of biodiversity loss, yet also hinder economic development, serve as vectors of disease, decrease the aesthetic value of nature, and prevent recreational activities. Adultsearch for term.

The breeding, final, and most conspicuous stage of the Lepidoptera multistage life cycle. Sometimes called the “imago”. The lifespan of adult butterflies ranges from a few weeks to several months, depending on species and environment. Biomes and biogeographic realms provide broad pictures of the distribution of functional diversity.

Functional diversity (the variety of different ecological functions in a community independent of its taxonomic diversity) shows patterns of associations (biota typical of wetlands, forests, grasslands, estuaries, and so forth) with geography and climate known as biomes (see Figure ), with.

Diversity and Extinctions