The band was finally forced to surrender only 30 miles short of reaching safety in Canada. They speak a Sahaptian dialect of the Penutian language family, which is common among other Plateau groups in the mid-Columbia River region.
Trade and Politics in Mediterranean Ports, C. Louis, MO Fax: There the Jew, the Mahometan and the Christian deal with one another as if they were from the same religion, and only call infidels those who go bankrupted. In this respect at least, Voltaire's account of the London Stock Exchange strik- ingly resembles recent historical studies of some Mediterranean port cities in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The elites of these port cities are described as 'cosmopolitan', successful and polyglot traders and business- men, with strong commercial and cultural connections to both Western and Eastern metropolises.
These cities, and to some extent Marseilles, were similar in their socio-economic development, size and particularly in their immigrant merchant population and the resulting diver- sity.
Since the turn of the century, the notion of 'cosmopolitanism' has raised increasing interest among social scientists working in the fields of sociology, anthropology, political sciences, history and, more recently, geography.
As a result of its prominence in such a variety of intellectual fields and research agendas, the notion has developed into what the anthropologist Henk Dries- sen recently called 'a Protean commonsense term referring to a rather elusive set of historical, social and cultural phenomena' Driessen, Within historical research, a lingering confu- sion exists between what is defined as 'cosmopolitan' and what is trans- or international, multicultural and diverse, while a similar confusion between the notions of 'cosmopolitanism' and 'multiculturalism' persists, the latter being often considered as evidence for the former.
In this perspective, we have decided to take as a working defini- tion the four-fold typology recently drawn by German historian Make Fuhr- mann. These four criteria are: We aim to test the pertinence of the notion in a dynamic way, by consider- ing in particular the relations of Greek and Jewish merchants with civic and state authorities.
There is no doubt that these three ports were connected with each other, just as local Greek and Jewish communities, although they are rarely studied together Dogo, ; Vassilikou,belonged to wider diasporas that expanded all across the Mediterranean and beyond. Indeed, we shall also recall that one understanding of these two diasporas is that the 'cosmopolitanism' of merchants stood in contrast to nationalism Dogo, ; Vassilikou, Yet we prefer to situate the Greek and Jewish merchants in their local contexts: In these cities, 'foreign' traders, Jewish and Greek, were not autonomous from the political sphere of their host societies but integrated residents.
One group in particular, Greek merchants, is exemplary of 'cosmopolitan' trading groups resident in port cities. In Trieste, at least, there is little doubt that it was Jews and Greeks who flourished and became the heart of the city's merchant class Dubin, In Corfu, Christian and Jewish merchants comprised the city's merchant class in almost equal numbers Gekas, Of course, we shall also keep in mind that Greeks and Jews are important cosmopolitans in other Mediterranean cities as well, notably Odessa and Alexandria.
Last, this cosmpolitanism also accompanied the increasing conception that minorities lived in an inter- connected world therefore rendering the transnational, or, rather, trans- local, nature of diaspora more than a mere rhetorical figurewhile being rooted into common local social practices and both shared and distinct uses of urban space.
The number of Greeks in Trieste rose from 54 in to in1, inand dropped only due to the Greek war of independence to a figure of around 1, by Katsiardi-Hering, As for Livorno, a mere Greeks were settled inwhile two decades later we find in Greek-governmental sources that 'one finds in Livorno more Greek traders than in any other city in Europe',2 a statement clearly exaggerated given the number of Greek merchants in Trieste just listed, not to mention Odessa; with probably the fastest rising Greek popu- lation outside Greece.
As these numbers testify, Greeks were no longer an 'invisible minority' in urban space, and as many of them planned to settle in their host cities, they petitioned the state and city authorities to have their presence officially recognised.
As one might expect, their two requests were the building of an Orthodox church and the foundation of legal bodies con- fraternities or brotherhoods in charge of representing them. In most of their host cities, the 'tandem' formed by the church and the brotherhood quickly became the physical and symbolical centre of Greek communal life and activities.Adrien Katherine Wing,Space Traders for the Twenty-First Century, 11 BerkeleyJ.
Afr.-Am. L. & Pol'y49 (). the story of The Space Traders itself and the various reactions to it. Lastly, Part CONSTITUTIONAL CONFLICTS, was an innovative text for basic constitutional law courses.
For generations, sociological theorists have debated the relative function, utility, and harm of social conflict and its resolution.
This review identifies some of the most prominent among recent contested forms of conflict resolution as well as their social histories, worldviews, and ways of operating. If space development is just on our horizon, there looks to be enough questions to require forethought and advance planning related to the social, political and economic landscape of space living, in addition to the usual near-term issues in space ethics.
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