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Life Expectancy Essay Life Expectancy Essay Life expectancy is a measurement defined as the number of years a person, at a given age and within a given population, can expect to live.
Calculations of life expectancy come from a life table, a demographic measurement tool that describes the pattern and level of mortality for a given population, typically on a cross-sectional basis; that is, as a snapshot in time. While any age can serve as a basis to determine life expectancy, it is the expectation of life at birth represented within a life table as e0 most commonly presented because it is a summary indicator of mortality conditions across all ages for a given population, is unaffected by the overall age structure of the population, and, as such, is useful in cross-population comparisons.
Occasionally, life expectancy at age 1 actually exceeds that at birth, if infant mortality rates are extraordinarily high within a given population.
Life expectancy usually declines with age. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, in life expectancy at birth for both men and women of all races in the United States was At age 65, life expectancy was These calculations imply a year-old could expect to live until 83, a year-old until age 86, and an year-old until age When the first reliable U.
Much of the increase in life expectancy resulted from decreases in infant and child mortality, which reflects systematic increases in public health interventions such as the development of sewer systems that helped reduce the spread of infectious diseases.
As history suggests, social conditions affect life expectancy as do demographic and socioeconomic factors such as gender, race, income, and geography. These factors create a range of life expectancies between populations as well as within a given population.
Disparities in mortality rates usually result from unequal development among countries, whereas within a given population disparities reflect social inequality or stratification.
Life expectancy currently differs dramatically between developed and developing countries, the latter of whose populations lack public health resources and remain subject to high levels of infectious disease.
Although the United States has one of the highest overall life expectancies in the world, it actually ranks low among other industrialized countries. Despite spending more on health care than any other industrialized country, the United States ranked 29th in life expectancy in and 43rd worldwide for infant mortality in Ina study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health found that the gap between highest and lowest life expectancy among subgroups in the United States is over 35 years.
This considerable gap reflects disparities that result from a combination of socioeconomic factors, including race, gender, income distribution, and geographic location, as well as phenomena such as widely varying rates of HIV infection and homicide and behavioral and cultural barriers to health, leading to increased rates of diabetes, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and alcohol-related deaths within specific populations.
Further, this gap speaks to structural inequalities that limit access to health insurance and quality medical care, as well as the lack of social policies aimed at reducing socioeconomic differences. In addition to demographic and socioeconomic factors that increase the range of life expectancies, increased overall life expectancy poses new challenges to populations where increased longevity may not necessarily correlate to improvements in quality of life.
As populations age throughout the world, the prevalence of chronic illness also increases, and many public health organizations now distinguish between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, the latter defined as the number of years an individual can expect to live a life free from disability, dependency on others, or disease.
The prevalence of chronic illness among older populations raises issues such as the increased costs of medical care, the complications of long-term care, and strain placed on both private and public resources.
Without the development of public health care initiatives that can reduce risk factors for chronic illnesses or the adoption of social policies that are capable of buffering the negative health effects of structural inequality, disparities in life expectancy will remain a social and public health concern.
National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved March 29, https: Murray, and Alan D.
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Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy. Iandiorio, and Majid Ezzati. This example Life Expectancy Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only.
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examine the effects on life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of changes in six major behavioral risk factors over the period: smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol use, and unsafe . An opinion essay about environment ppt problem essay sample topics for ielts essay fce phrases exam, research paper services kabanata 2 parts describe a room essay photograph the olympic games essay life essay television in our life personal testing essay writing nature in hindi.
Life Expectancy on the Rise - Introduction The measurement of life expectancy can be measured by mortality and morbidity (Molla). Mortality is the inclusion of death rates, and morbidity is included in life expectancy when studies focus more on the life of the individual rather than death.
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My best teacher essay for college ann bonitatibus dissertation proposal importance of education in student life essay digital revolution graphic design history essay. Low . In other words, if the country has a low live expectancy it will certainly be poor, for instance, Benin has a life expectancy of years and a PPP of $, and India has a life expectancy of 61 years and a PPP of $2,/5(6).
Life expectancy summarises in one statistic number the structure of a society. There are some social and economic relevant factors that affect life expectancy in general, and in the case of developing countries the index is lower than the global average.