Infant attachment[ edit ] The attachment system serves to achieve or maintain proximity to the attachment figure. In close physical proximity this system is not activated, and the infant can direct its attention to the outside world. Within attachment theory, attachment means "a biological instinct in which proximity to an attachment figure is sought when the child senses or perceives threat or discomfort.
Behaviors in adult relationships' are influenced by the kinds of relationships and attachments they have experienced in their early years with their primary caregivers.
Therefore one can see that the interactions we first have with our primary caregivers could shape our relationships as adults.
Additionally no one can doubt that children are first shaped inside their families and no one can underestimate the importance of the parents' role on a child's development and how it can affect their future development.
This brings to mind the theory of parenting styles I learned in a previous psychology class. Diana Baumrind developed a theory of four distinct parenting styles which reflect the two dimensions of parenting which are responsiveness and demandingness Arnett, Responsiveness reflects the degree to which parents are supportive and sensitive to the child's needs and reflects the amount of love, warmth and affection expressed to their children Arnett, Demandingness reflects the degree to which parents are demanding, have rules and high expectations for their children and it reflects the amount of controlling and monitoring parents have towards their children Arnett, Based on these two dimensions the four types of parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful or disengaged.
Parenting style has been found to greatly influence and affect adolescent development and also could probably affect the relationships with others in a similar fashion that attachment style may. The primary caregiver's behavior and interaction towards an infant could affect and shape their expectations and interactions with others throughout their lives.
They use their primary caregiver as a "secure base from which to explore" when all is well and use them for consolidation when frightened Arnett,p.
Depending of the attachment style that infants and young children have been exposed to they develop specific patterns of relationships that affect their responses to their adult relationship s.
For instance a child that had a secure attachment with their caregivers would be able to develop lasting relationships as adults. Contrary a child who had an avoidant attachment with their caregivers would have difficulty creating long lasting relationships and would have difficulty to trust others.
For the dimension of self image and image of others there are two levels which are the positive and negative and the combination of them composing the four patterns of adult attachment styles.
For instance the secure adult attachment style based on this model is characterized by positive self image with low dependency and by a positive image of others with low avoidance.
From personal experience and from people I know I believe that attachment theory, and the above mentioned model, could accurately be applied to explain relationship patterns. Personally as a child I developed a secure attachment with my parents as they were responsive to my needs and caring, they were there when I needed them and they provided me with reassurance to explore my environment.
As an adult I have been able to develop lasting relationships and I am comfortable with closeness, trusting others, and interdependence. When considering others from my close environment I also can relate their relationship patterns with the attachment theory and this appears helpful to better understand them.
For instance a close friend of mine and previous colleague seems she has developed a preoccupied attachment style and this could explain her pattern of relationships thus far in her life. As an adult she developed a preoccupied attachment style and she exhibits this attachment style towards both her friendships and intimate relationships.
Particularly when it comes to her intimate relationships this type of attachment style is possibly responsible for her two divorces within a five year time frame and her being less satisfied with her romantic relationships. Whenever she entered into a romantic relationship she acted obsessive and was very preoccupied with her relationship.
Most of her relationships were short-lived and even when she ended up getting married her first marriage lasted only one year and her second just a little longer.Associations between parenting style and attachment to mother in middle childhood and adolescence Leigh Karavasilis, Anna Beth Doyle, and Dorothy Markiewicz International Journal of Behavioral Development 2, Parenting Styles and Attachment Disorder.
According to the report, Attachment Disorder, Basic Trust and Educational Psychology, King and Newnham define attachment disorder as more of a description rather than a physiological diagnosis based upon their study of Bowlby’s work regarding attachment disorder, Randolph’s description of Attachment Disorder, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Location: Hollywood, CA United States.
Attachment Parenting is a style of parenting that develops an infant or child's need for trust, empathy, and affection in order to create a secure, peaceful, and enduring relationship. This style requires a consistent, loving, and responsive caregiver, ideally a parent, especially during the .
In this brief overview, the author contrasts two current parenting styles: Attachment Parenting and Babywise Parenting. Keywords: parenting, infant care Not all parenting styles are alike.
What individuals do as parents depends somewhat on how they were raised as a child, what they observed in other.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING STYLES AND ADULT The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of () male and female students at the faculty of educational Keywords: Attachment, Attachment styles, Parenting styles.
1. LITERATURE REVIEW Parenting. At the root of attachment parenting lies attachment theory. on research into different styles of attachment in both children and condition called reactive attachment disorder (RAD).