Academic writing in english a process-based approach pdf to word

Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here.

Academic writing in english a process-based approach pdf to word

Once again it is dealing with a surge in claims that it is ill-equipped to manage, running the risk of creating a large backlog that, if not tackled promptly, may take years to bring to final resolution. This Independent Review was initiated due to lower than expected productivity at the Refugee Protection Division, which became apparent as intake increased in and Thus the Review was directed before the latest surge of claims began in earnest, adding additional urgency to the Review work.

Not only have claims substantially increased inreaching almost 50, in the calendar year, but the surge has been dominated by illegal border crossings in an effort by claimants to avoid the provisions of the Safe Third Country Agreement with the United States, which would likely make many ineligible to file a refugee claim in Canada.

In response to this Review and the growing refugee claims the IRB independently launched an action plan in July aimed at increasing the productivity of the IRB.

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The thrust of these reforms — the results to date of which are detailed in this report — was for faster processing of claims, with a view that bona fide claimants would be more quickly approved, and failed claimants, after access to the new Refugee Appeal Division RAD of the IRB, would be more quickly removed from Canada.

These reforms sought to manage refugee determination as a system, with the necessary governance and performance measurement mechanisms in place to continually monitor and adjust the ICAS as circumstances required. In the course of this management-focussed review, it became apparent that there are, in fact, two competing paradigms at work.

One, the systems management paradigm seeks to impose order and system-wide governance. The other, the independence or passive paradigm, allows each component of the system to operate on its own with little regard for the system as a whole. A robust and active horizontal or system governance is needed to steer this complex system and to guide system performance and results.

The IRB has historically gone back and forth between these paradigms but in general has operated as an autonomous adjudicative body, separate from the rest of the asylum system and has provided great deference to decision makers, which has contributed to this passivity.

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Therefore limited use has been made of guidance and other tools to both support and supervise these staff who are referred to as IRB Members. Reluctance by IRB management to set targets on decisions expected per week and to adopt tools such as decision assessment aids or standardized decision templates is indicative of how deeply rooted this approach is in the culture of the IRB.

In this autonomous, decision maker-centric model there is little scope for systems management tools without running against internal IRB concerns about the erosion of institutional independence.

There are three fundamental recommendations being made in this Report. The first is that a systems management approach for the ICAS be adopted.

The second recommendation is that this be done within one of the following two ways: The Refugee Protection Agency would be responsible for intake, first-level decision making for refugee protection along with Pre-Removal Risk Assessment decisions, and for international resettlement.

An Asylum System Management Board would also provide system-wide governance in this option. Detailed recommendations have been made to develop and implement a systems management approach and to re-engineer current asylum processes.

These recommendations can be implemented in a manner that maintains existing structures — the system reform option — or within the context of a new Agency.

Many of these recommendations, if accepted, can be implemented immediately. The first question, however, is whether to proceed with a systems management approach, and if yes, then begin implementation now while assessing further the preferred organizational option.

academic writing in english a process-based approach pdf to word

It is important that the organizational model is considered as soon as possible as it will affect how a systems management approach is developed and implemented. The third fundamental recommendation is to increase the capacity of the system now on an interim basis.

This will, regardless of the longer term approach taken, require incremental resources in the immediate term.

It is recommended that an aggressive approach be taken to eliminate the current backlog of cases by April This approach would, if the recommendations of this Report are accepted, be designed and implemented within the context of either option for a systems management regime.

This Report is organized into seven chapters, beginning with an overview of the evolution of the refugee determination system, then providing some international best practices, followed by a summary of stakeholder views, and then an outline of different models for Canada is presented, concluding with a more detailed analysis and set of recommendations for a system management approach.

While the Review has examined first-level decision making and the Refugee Protection Division of the IRB, all elements of the asylum process have been considered from intake through to decision making and removal or permanent residency, and the roles of other delivery organizations: This broader examination was considered essential, given the inter-dependent nature of the asylum system.

Specifically, as outlined in the Terms of Reference, the Review has sought to: The Review was greatly assisted in its work through the contributions of the individual federal organizations who were generous with their time, contributing information, data and analysis needed by the Review team to meet the objectives of the review.

International perspectives, which are presented in Chapter 2, drew upon the knowledge and insights of officials from the European Asylum Support Office and the European Commission, U. The Review wishes to acknowledge the contribution of experts, academics and stakeholders who were consulted and shared their knowledge, expertise and ideas for a more efficient system: Stakeholder perspectives are outlined in Chapter 3 of this Report.

Canada first implemented its obligations through domestic legislation under the Immigration Act of which set out a paper process, with limited appeal rights to the Immigration Appeal Board, the precursor to the IRB.

By the early s the refugee determination procedure was already experiencing backlogs and delays when a key Supreme Court decision in Singh enshrined that where credibility of the claimant is at stake, an oral hearing must be undertaken.

The Singh decision is often seen as a watershed that enforced Charter protections for migrants on arrival on Canadian soil. In Canada received what today looks like a very modest 1, refugee claims.When writing academic papers, it is often helpful to find key terms and use them within your paper as well as in your thesis.

This section comments on the crucial difference between repetition and redundancy of terms and works through an example of using key terms in a thesis statement.

ADVANCED WRITING. IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE A Corpus-Based Study of Processes and Products Horvath Jozsef Lingua Franca Csoport ADVANCED WRITING IN ENGLISH. Welcome to the official website of Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics.

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*Special rate at Gladstone Hotel available on a first come first serve basis with promo code ($+HST for classic/standard room). The incremental learning derives its name from the incremental nature of the learning process. In incremental learning, all facets of knowledge receive a regular treatment, and there is a regular inflow of new knowledge that builds upon the past knowledge.

then how you approach the writing task. Early research done on college various activities of the writing process many times as we write. Myth #2: Writers only start writing when they have everything figured out What Is “Academic” Writing?

7 Looking More Closely at the “Academic Writing” Situation.

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